Section 1. Chemical Identification Product Name: Isoflurane Chemical Family: Halocarbon Anaesthetic Common Used Brand Names: Forane, Aerrane Product Use: Anaesthetic
1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether (C3H2ClF5O), M. W. 184.5 g/mol
How Supplied: Liquid in 250ml glass bottles
Risk-Phrases: R36 R37 R38
Exposure Guideline: 50ppm 8-hr TWA (EH40/2005)
Section 3. Hazards Identification EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Inhalation: Inhalation of isoflurane at a concentration of 0.5-3.0% can induce general anesthesia in 7 to 10 minutes, with analgesia, muscle relaxation, and loss of consciousness. Isoflurane is mildly pungent and may cause coughing, laryngospasm and breath holding in an unconscious individual; secretions may be slightly stimulated and pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes may be obtunded. Isoflurane is a severe respiratory depressant, causing a decreased tidal volume that may produce hypercapnia. Blood pressure is depressed with an initial decrease in systemic vascular resistance, heart rate and cardiac output, although rate and output may increase due to compensatory mechanisms. Arrhythmias can occur, and the myocardium may be slightly sensitized to epinephrine. Renal blood flow, glomerular filtration and urine flow are decreased without residual renal depression or renal injury following isoflurane anesthesia. Isoflurane does not appear to produce liver injury when given for prolonged periods. Inhalation of higher concentrations may lead to death by medullary paralysis. Those recovering from exposure may exhibit shivering, nausea, vomiting, ileus, or excitation, and there may be a transient white blood count increase. A slight decrease in intellectual function may persist for 2-3 days, with small mood changes or symptoms possible for 6 days. Induction of general anesthesia may cause malignant hyperthermia from hypermetabolism of skeletal muscles in susceptible individuals.
Contact with Skin or Eyes: May cause irritation.
Ingestion: No specific hazards other than therapeutic effects. See inhalation.
Potential Health Hazards Acute and Chronic:
Acute: Anesthesia, respiratory depression, coughing
Cancer: No evidence
Chronic: No present evidence that isoflurane is a mutagen, teratogen or carcinogen.
Target Organs: Respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous system.
Section 4. First Aid Measures Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. Skin: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical attention if irritation develops. Eyes: In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention if irritation develops.
Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If large quantities of this material are swallowed, call a physician immediately.
Section 5. Fire Fighting Measures Extinguishing Media:
Use foam or all purpose dry chemicals to extinguish.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazard:
Toxic vapors are released. Highly volatile liquid. On heating there is a risk of bursting due to internal pressure build up.
Section 6. Accidental Release Measures
Spill & Leak Procedures
Small releases: Evacuate personnel from immediate area. Allow spilled liquid to evaporate. Ensure adequate ventilation. Once liquid has evaporated and area clear of fumes wash affected area with water. Remove any broken packaging and dispose as hazardous waste.
Large releases: Evacuate personnel from immediate area. Ventilate area. Wearing appropriate PPE contain spill and absorb onto suitable inert absorbent material. Do not allow liquid to enter drains. Collect absorbent and place in plastic bags. Treat as hazardous waste. Contaminated area should be washed thoroughly with water. Collect broken contaminated packaging and treat as hazardous waste.
Waste: Unwanted product, contaminated packaging and spill clean-up materials should be treated as hazardous waste. Waste must be removed by a licensed waste contractor and destroyed preferably by incineration
Section 7. Handling & Storage GENERAL PRECAUTIONS Avoid breathing vapor. Store and use in well ventilated areas.
Handling Precautions: Wash thoroughly after handling.
Storage Conditions: Keep container tightly closed. Keep in a dry, cool well ventilated place. Store between 15-30C.
Section 8. Exposure Controls – Personal Protection
Respiratory Protection Perform exposure monitoring for this product and its components to ensure that employees are not exposed to levels greater than applicable regulatory limits. If exposure levels exceed regulatory limits implement a respiratory protection program including respiratory protection that is in accordance with local regulations.
Hand Protection: Use chemical resistant, impervious gloves.
Eye Protection: Goggles, face shield, or other full-face protection if potential exists for direct exposure to aerosols or splashes.
Skin Protection: Wear uniform or laboratory coat. Additional body garments should be used based upon the task being performed (e.g. sleevelets, apron, gauntlets, disposable suits).
Environmental Exposure Control & Work Hygienic Practices: Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation, or other engineering controls to keep airborne levels below recommended exposure limits. Well designed and maintained scavenging system on the anesthesia equipment (combined with good general room ventilation) is important in limiting the exposures of all personnel.
Section 9. Physical & Chemical Properties Drug Product Appearance, Physical State and Color: Clear colorless mobile liquid with characteristic ethereal odor.
-pH: Not applicable
-Relative density: Not available
-Boiling Point: 48.5°C
-Solubility in Water: Insoluble in cold water
-Flash Point: Not applicable
-Freezing Point: Not available
-Flammability: Not applicable
-Partition coefficient: Not available
-Explosive properties: Not applicable
-Viscosity: Not available
-Oxidising Properties: Not applicable
-Relative Vapor Density: >1 (Air = 1)
-Vapor Pressure: 330mm Hg (@20°C)
-Evaporation rate: Not available
-Specific gravity: 1.50 (water = 1)
-Melting Point: Not available
Section 10. Stability & Reactivity Stability: The product is stable under recommended storage conditions Conditions to avoid: Do not store above 30°C Materials to avoid: Peroxides Hazardous Decomposition Products: Hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, phosgene Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur
Section 11. Toxicological Information Acute toxicity: Cardiovascular effects (may include fluctuations in heart rate, changes in blood pressure, chest pain). Respiratory effects (may include shortness of breath, bronchospasms, laryngospasms, respiratory depression). Gastrointestinal effects (may include nausea, upset stomach, loss of appetite). Nervous System effects (may include ataxia, tremor, disturbance of speech, lethargy, headache, dizziness, blurred vision).
Corrosivity/irritation (eye, skin, respiratory tract): Non corrosive. May cause eye and skin irritation.
Sensitisation (skin, respiratory): No data available
Mutagenicity: No data available Carcinogenicity: Not classified or listed by IARC, NTP, OSHA, EU and ACGIH. No drug related carcinogenic/tumorigenic effects based on animal data.
Reproductive toxicity (fertility, developmental): No impairment to fertility based on animal data. May be fetotoxic at high doses based on animal data. Epideiological studies suggest higher than normal incidences of problem pregnancies (particularly spontaneous abortions) among exposed personnel.
Section 12. Ecological Information All work practices must be aimed at eliminating environmental contamination. Ecotoxicity: No data available
Section 13. Disposal Considerations Methods of Disposal: All contaminated waste (including and spill cleanup materials) must be disposed of by a licensed waste contractor preferably by incineration.
Marine Pollutant: None Other applicable information: None
Risk Phrases: R36 - Irritating to eyes. R37 - Irritating to respiratory system. R38 - Irritating to skin.